Panchatantra is considered to be the first place in Sanskrit proverbs. Although this book has not survived in its original form, its composition has been determined around the 3rd century BCE, based on the available translations. The author of this book is Pt. Vishnu Sharma. The Panchatantra is divided into five tantras (parts): Mitrabheda (discord and separation among friends), Mitralabh or Mitrasamprapti (getting friends and their benefits), Kakolukiyam (the story of crows and owls), Labdhapranasha (of the object (labdha) in hand). Get out of hand), untested factor (be careful before doing something that hasn’t been tested; don’t act rashly). In many stories of Panchatantra, apart from human characters, sometimes animals and birds have also been made the characters of the story and many instructive things have been tried to be told from them.
In some district of the south there was a town – Mahilaropya. The king Amarshakti there was very mighty and generous. King Amarshakti, who was proficient in all the arts, had three sons – Bahushakti, Ugrashakti and Anantshakti. As much as the king himself was a moralist, scholar, virtuous and well versed in the arts, unfortunately his three sons were equally defiant, ignorant and uncompromising.
Worried about the foolishness and ignorance of his sons, one day the king said to his ministers, “It would have been better to remain childless than such foolish and irrational sons. The death of sons does not cause as much pain as a foolish son does. When a son dies only once, a son suffers, but such a son becomes the cause of pain and humiliation like a curse for the rest of his life. Thousands of scholars, artists and great scholars live in our state. Take such a way that these useless princes get educated and move towards wisdom and knowledge.”
The ministers began to discuss. Finally the minister Sumati said, “Sir, the life span of a person is very uncertain and short. Our sons have grown up now. If you start studying grammar and vocabulary properly, it will take many days. It would be appropriate for them that they should be taught on the basis of some brief scripture, in which the essence has been accepted and the Nisar has been abandoned; Just as a swan consumes milk, it gives up water. One such great Pandit Vishnu Sharma lives in your state only. Well versed in all the scriptures, Vishnu Sharma has a great reputation among the students. You hand over the princes to their hands for education.
This is what King Amarshakti did. After paying respect to Mahapandit Vishnu Sharma, he requested with humility, “Arya, please do so much favor to my sons that they may have knowledge of economics. I will give you a hundred villages in dakshina.”
Acharya Vishnu Sharma said in a bold voice, “I do not sell education, God! I do not want to sell my knowledge by taking a hundred villages. But I promise that within six months only I will make my sons proficient in policies. If I can’t, may God make me void of education!”
Everyone was stunned to hear this ominous vow of Mahapandit.King
Amarshakti worshiped Vishnu Sharma along with the ministers and handed over the three sons of the king to them.
Vishnu Sharma reached his residence with the sons of Rajputras. According to his promise, within six months, he composed a very interesting book to make him master in economics. There were five Tantras in it – Mitrabheda, Mitrasamprapti (Mitralabh), Kakolukiyam, Labdhapranasam and Aparikshitkarakam. For this reason the name of that book ‘Panchtantra’ became famous.
After studying this interesting book, full of illustrations from folk tales, the three uneducated and defiant sons of a brahmin became proficient in ethics within six months as promised.
Introduction – Panchatantra
author of Panchatantra
Pt Vishnu Sharma was the author of the famous Sanskrit policy book Panchatantra. Panchatantra has the first place in proverbs. On the basis of the available evidence, it can be said that when the composition of this book was completed, then his age was close to 80 years. He lived in a town called Mahilaropya in South India.
Place of Panchatantra in Sanskrit proverbs
Panchatantra is considered to be the first place in Sanskrit proverbs. Although this book has not survived in its original form, its composition has been determined around the 3rd century BCE on the basis of available translations. The author of this book is Pt Vishnu Sharma. On the basis of the available evidence, it can be said that when the composition of this book was completed, then his age was about 80 years. The Panchatantra is divided into five tantras (parts): Mitrabhed (discord
and separation among friends),
Mitralabh or Mitrasamprapti (friendship and its benefits)
, Kakolukiyam (the story of crows and owls)
, Labdhapranash (the removal of the object (labdha) from the hand). go (loss))
untested factor (be careful before doing what hasn’t been tested; don’t act rashly)
Introducing the principles of psychology, practicality and governance, these stories present all the subjects in a very interesting way and at the same time try to give a lesson.
In many stories of Panchatantra, apart from human characters, sometimes animals and birds have also been made the characters of the story and many instructive things have been tried to be told from them.
The stories of Panchatantra are very lively. In this, public behavior has been explained in a very simple way. Many people consider this book to be a powerful medium to develop leadership abilities. The importance of this book is proved by the fact that it has been translated into almost every language of the world.
Panchatantra occupies the first place in the proverbs. Panchatantra is the basis of the composition of Hitopadesh. Narayan Pandit ji himself has accepted –
Panchatantratatta and nyasmad granthadakrishya likhyate.
– Verse No.9, Preface, Hitopadesh
Creation of Panchatantra
Based on the various available translations, its composition is determined to be around the 3rd century. In which period the Panchatantra was composed, it cannot be said with certainty because the original copy of the Panchatantra is not yet available. Some scholars have presented their opinion about the author of Panchatantra and the language style of Panchatantra.
According to Mahamahopadhyay Pt. Sadashiv Shastri, the author of Panchatantra was Vishnusharma and Vishnusharma was another name of Chanakya. Therefore, Panchatantra was composed in the time of Chandragupta Maurya and it was composed in 300 BC. may be considered. But western and some Indian scholars do not believe so, they say that the second name of Chanakya was Vishnugupta and not Vishnusharma, and from the point of view of the available Panchatantra language, it appears to be a Gupta period.
Mahamahopadhyay Pt. Durgaprasad Sharma has considered the time of Vishnusharma to be in the middle of the eighth century, because in the first tantra of Panchatantra, the Kuttinmat written by Damodar Gupta of the eighth century has seen the Arya of Kuttinam, so if Vishnusharma was the author of the Panchatantra, then he is the eighth century. would have happened in But on the basis of the said verse alone, the composition of Panchatantra cannot be considered in the eighth century, because this verse can also be projected in any version.
Hertel and Dr. Keith, its creation in 200 BC. In favor of accepting after. The influence of Chanakya’s economics is also visible in Panchatantra, on the basis of this, it can be said that Chanakya’s time is about 4th century ago, so Panchatantra must have been composed before 3rd century.
In this way, no opinion regarding the composition of Panchatantra is completely unanimous.
Version – Four editions of the Panchatantra are available – the
first edition is the Pahlavi translation of the original text, which is now available in the form of Syrian and Arabic translations.
The Panchatantra appears in Gunadhyakrit ‘Brihatkatha’ as a second edition. The ‘Brihatkatha’ was composed in Paishachi language but its original form has been destroyed and ‘Brihatkatha Manjari’ written by Ksemendra and ‘Kathasaritsagar’ written by Somdev are translations of the same.
The third edition contains a collection of Tantrakhyayika and Jain stories related to it. ‘Tantrakhyayika’ is considered to be the oldest. Its origin is Kashmir. The famous German scholar Dr. Hertel worked hard to find its authentic version. According to them ‘Tantrakhyayika’ or Tantrakhya is the original form of Panchatantra. This is the prevalent ‘Panchtantra’ of the modern era.
The fourth version is the archetype of the southern ‘Panchtantra’ and is represented by the Nepali ‘Panchtantra’ and ‘Hitopadesh’.
In this way ‘Panchtantra’ is not a book but a representative of a vast literature.
Place of Panchatantra in world literature
Panchatantra has an important place in world literature also. It has been translated into many foreign languages. Among these translations, the translation of the Pahlavi language named ‘Karatkadamanak’ is considered to be the oldest translation. The result of its popularity was that very soon the Panchatantra was translated and published in ‘Lerian’ language, this edition was published in 570 AD. It was translated from Persian into Arabic language. It was translated from Arabic into Greek around the year 1080. Then it was translated from Greek into Latin by a person named Pasinus. A reverse of the Arab translation was published in the Spanish language around 1251. The first translation into German took place in the 15th century, and the treatise was translated into all the languages of Europe. According to Winternitz more influence of Panchatantra is seen on German literature. Similarly to Aesop’s stories of Greek and ‘Arabian Nights’ of Arabia. Panchatantra is the basis of the original stories. It is believed that the Panchatantra has been translated into about 50 different languages so far and there have been about 200 editions of it. This is an indication of its popularity.
form of Panchatantra
There are five tantras or divisions in the Panchatantra. (Panchanam Tantranam Samaharah – Dwigusamas) The department is called Tantra because the methods of ethical governance have been told in it. These tantras are – Mitrabheda, Mitrasamprapti (Mitra profit), Kakolukiyam (conciliation-deity), Labdhapranasha and Aparikshitkaraka.
In brief, the contents of these systems are as follows-
There is a main story in the fables and there are many secondary stories to substantiate it, similarly in this first system called ‘Mitrabhed’, in the south before Angikatha, the story of King Amarshakti of Mahilaropya has been given in which it has been told that he The reason for the foolish sons was worried and therefore he entrusts a scholar named Vishnusharma to educate his sons and Vishnusharma succeeds in educating them through stories within six months. Thereafter in the part-story of the part called Mitrabhed, There is a description of a wicked jackal creating an enmity between a lion named Pingalak, a bull named Sanjeevak, whom the lion saved from objection and made him his friend despite the opposition of two of his ministers – Karkat and Damanak. Many types of teachings have been given in this system, such that with patience, a person can face even the most difficult situations, so even if the destiny worsens, patience should not be given up-
Tyajyyam na dhairyam vidhurepi kale dhairayatkadachit gatimapnuyatsah (Mitrabheda, verse 345)
How much happiness and joy one gets from getting a friend in this system has been told through the story of Kapotraj Chitragriva. Only a friend helps in adversity –
Sarveshamev mortyana addictions are present.
Vadmatrenapi sahayyammitradanyo na saddhe. (Mitrasamprapti Shlok 12)
It has been said that coming to a friend’s house gives more happiness than heaven.
Suhrdo bhavane yasya samagachhanti nityasah.
Chitte cha tasya soukhyasya na kinchatpratim sukhm॥ (Mitrasamprapti Shlok 18)
Thus, the teaching of this system is that only useful friends should be made, just as the crow, tortoise, deer and mouse remain happy on the strength of friendship.
In this, describing the war and the treaty, the story of the owls’ cavity being burnt by the crows has been told. It has been told in this that for the sake of selfishness, the enemy should also be made a friend and later he should be destroyed by deceit. In this system too, the crow befriends the owl and later sets the owl’s fort on fire. That is why one should be careful with enemies, because the person who neglects the enemy and the disease, growing freely in laziness – does not try to stop them, he is killed by the same (enemy or disease) respectively – or the neglected enemy is self-
proclaimed at random.
Disease Chalasyasamyukt: S Shanasten Hanyate. (Kakolukiya Verse 2)
In this system, there is the main story of the monkey and the crocodile and there are other incarnation stories. It has been told in these stories that how the Labh i.e. the desired was attained, that is, it got destroyed. It has been taught through the story of the monkey and the crocodile that the wise conquers by the power of his intelligence and the fool is deprived of even the thing that comes in his hand.
In this last tantra i.e. part of Panchatantra, especially the policy of doing carefully supervised work has been emphasized because without thinking well and without listening well, the person who does any work does not get success in the work, but there are many difficulties in life. have to face. Therefore, blindness should not be done. In the main story of this system, there is a story of a barber who blindly imitated the name of Manibhadra and was given death sentence by the judges for killing the Jain monks. Therefore, one should not do unreasonable acts like a hairdresser without being tested –
Kudrishtam Kuprigyatam Kushrutam Kuprikshitam.
Tannere na dutyvyam napitenatra ya kritam. (Untested Verse-1)
It has also been told in this that no work should be done even without full knowledge, because later one has to repent, as if the Brahmin wife killed the bloodied mongoose without seeing anything thinking that it has eaten my son, in fact the mongoose has So to protect the child from the snake, the snake was killed due to which his face was stained with blood.
That’s why it was said –
Aparikshya na dutyam dutyam suprikshitam.
Pachadabhavati santapo brahminya nakule as. (Untested factor verse-17)
Thus Panchatantra is a didactic composition. In this, the author has shown his practical skills, political rigor and knowledge. Non-human characters in proverbs are usually of two types, living beings and unconscious matter. In the Panchatantra also these two types of characters are seen – lion, tiger, shrigal, Shashak, Vrishabha, donkey, etc. in animals, Kak, Uluk, Kapot, Peacock, Chatak, Shuk etc. in other animals and snakes, Nakula, etc. Pipilika etc. Apart from these, there are also unconscious characters like rivers, seas, trees, mountains, caves, etc., which have been accused of human behaviour. In Panchatantra, an attempt has been made to make human beings efficient in a very simple and interesting style. Explaining the purpose of Panchatantra, Dr. Vasudev Sharan Agarwal has written that-
“Panchtantra is a policy scripture or policy text – the meaning of policy is to behave wisely in life. Not cleverness and cunning, moral life is that life in which all the powers and possibilities of man are developed i.e. attainment of a life in which self-defense, Wealth-prosperity, good deeds, friendship and knowledge can be attained and they have been coordinated in such a way that happiness can be attained. The related stories have been collected. According to the tradition of Panchatantra, it has been composed for the education of the promiscuous sons of a king and the author has been completely successful in this.
Panchatantra – Ramchandra Verma
Due to being composed in five tantra-chapters, the name of this book is ‘Panchtantra’
Through simple, comprehensible and interesting stories, to acquaint the children with the principles of politics and public behavior and make them proficient in this field. Due to its wide popularity, the story has been associated with human life since time immemorial. The interest and tendency to read and listen to stories in children has always reached the level of addiction. The reason for this is the curiosity and curiosity found in the story. The more strong and rich the story in which this element is, the more successful and excellent that story will be called. In this context, the famous story-writer Jainendra has said – ‘The test of a successful story is that one should feel like reading it again and again and it should be read again and again’. A story once read and thrown away should not be understood in the purview of literature.’
A form of literature or poetry is also a story. The purpose of literature is to increase the knowledge and guide the person through entertainment. On this basis it is said that the story which presents only entertainment is self-fulfilling. On the contrary, a story touching any aspect of life is lasting and attains eternal significance.
The stories of ‘Panchtantra’ live up to this criterion. Not only is the element of curiosity and curiosity very strong and rich in them, but also the tendency to present the truth in a beautiful way, that is, to be Shiva for human life. Due to these reasons, the popularity of these stories has not only remained intact for a period of about two thousand years from the time of their existence, but it has also been increasing continuously and steadily. The translation and translation of this book in many languages of the world is a strong proof of its wide utility and popularity. Therefore, it can be said without hesitation that Acharya Vishnu Sharma’s effort to make soft-minded children skilled in political and public behavior through princes has been really commendable and is a boon for all the children.
Apart from this, ‘Panchtantra’ is given special importance due to being a book representing Indian civilization, culture, customs, ethics and customs. This book is useful for all sections of the society. In this book, the author has presented a beautiful, succinct and interesting explanation of religious, economic, social and political facts related to daily life through short stories, which is difficult to find in any other book. The well-known sociologist Samuel has considered Panchatantra as a true guide and an integral companion in the happiness and sorrow of human life, property and calamity, joy and sorrow, discord, friendship and rise and fall. Whatever situation you are in, turn the pages of this book, you will definitely find something like this, Which will be helpful in solving your problem and will prove to be a stress reliever. This granth-ratna, which gives new energy and new inspiration in life, is a shining gem of culture.
In order to bring this world-famous treatise of Sanskrit to the readers of Hindi, we are presenting it in a simple and understandable language. We hope that the readers will be benefited by reading it.
invocation of the book
In India, there has been a tradition of invocation by the author in the form of remembrance and salutation of his presiding deity at the beginning of his creation for the smooth completion of the book. Acharya Vishnu Sharma has also followed this tradition. In his invocation, Acharya Vishnu Sharma, praying to all the gods and goddesses to protect everyone, says – Brahma, Shiva, Swami Kartikeya, Vishnu, Varuna, Yama, Agni, Indra, Kubera, Chandra, Surya, Saraswati, Samudra, all four ages. (Satyuga, Treta, Dwapara and Kaviyuga), Mountains, Vayu, Earth, Serpent, Kapil etc. Siddha, Ganga etc. Rivers, both Ashwini Kumar (son of the sun and physician of the gods), Lakshmi, Diti-putra (daitya), Aditi-putra (Gods), Chandika etc. Matrikas, four Vedas (Rig, Yaju, Sama and Atharvan), Kashi Mathura etc. Tirtha, Ashwamedha, Rajasuya Yagya, Pramatha etc. Gana, Ashtavasu, Narad, Vyasa etc. Muni and Mercury, Shani etc. Navagraha – all these Always protect us all.
(a) Present invocation is very unique. Often the creators mention one of their presiding deities in the invocation, but here the author has put a flurry of presiding deities.
(b) Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are mentioned under Trimurti. Acharya Vishnu Sharma kept this sequence far away, he has included Kumar (Karthikeya) in the middle of Shiva and Vishnu.
(c) (i) After mentioning separately the gods Indra, Agni and Varun etc. Aditi-sons have been mentioned again. All these are the sons of Aditi. Sun and Moon are also planets.
(d) Worship of mountains, seas, rivers, pilgrimages, eras, yagyas, Vasus and Ganas can be seen only in this invocation. No other poet has done this.
(e) The prayer of protection from diti-sons-daityas is astonishing.
After the invocation, the author bows before himself to the pioneer scholars of political science – I bow to the learned authors of ethics – Maharaj Manu, Devguru Brihaspati, Shukracharya, the guru of the demons, Maharishi Parashar, his son Ved Vyas and Prakand Chanakya – .
Nava Vachaspatiye Shukay Parasharay Sasutay.
Chanakyay cha vidushe namostu nayashastrakartribhyah.
Acharya Vishnu Sharma has introduced the source of the content of his book by mentioning the scholars of his predecessor Nitishastra. The author is composing his book – Panchatantra – by taking material from the texts of the above mentioned erstwhile makers of political science. The author, while accepting this fact in the next verse, says-
I am Vishnu Sharma, after looking at the entire material of the above-mentioned scholars, Manu etc., and other scholars’ available political texts, and taking their essence, I am creating my own beautiful book, Panchatantra, consisting of five tantras (chapters).
It is clear that ‘Panchtantra’ is a collection of the essence of the known and unknown works of the famous scholars of political science. In this way, its base is strong and sound and the content is completely authentic and practical. In this form the usefulness and importance of this book becomes self-evident.
It is heard that a city named Mahilaropya located in the south direction of India was the capital of a state. King Amar Singh of this place was such a mighty majestic Mahavira that many great and small feudal lords from far and wide used to take pride in being under his suzerainty and bowing their heads at his feet. Along with this, King Amar Singh was a penetrator of all the arts and was ready to develop them. Apart from this, he was also humble, generous and charitable. No petitioner returned empty-handed from his door.
Lord Amar Singh had given three sons to this brilliant, art-loving and charitable king. Their names were Bahushakti, Ugrasena and Anantshakti. Unfortunately these three sons were great idiots. None of the three was eligible to become the heir to the kingdom, so it was natural for the king to be worried and distressed. Therefore, despite being the ruler of such a vast state, Amar Singh’s mind was restless and sad.
Calling his ministers, the king apprised them of his concern and anguish and said – Brothers! You are the well wisher and protector of me and my kingdom. It is not hidden from you that all my three sons are intellect and irrational. That’s why it is natural for me not to feel at ease day and night even though I am the owner of such a huge kingdom. You will completely agree with this true statement of the moralists –
Ajatmritmoorkhabhyo Mritajatau Sutau Varam.
Yatstau slapdukhkhay yavajjivam jado dahet.
That the son is not born, the son is born and dies and the son born is rooted – in these three situations, the third or the last situation – the son’s foolishness – is undesirable as compared to the first two situations, being more odd and sad.
Referring to the reason for the more seriousness of the third situation than the first two, the king said – Undoubtedly, the birth of a son or the death of a child are sad and worrying situations, but this sorrow is of short duration. With the passage of time, the amount of grief also decreases gradually. That is why time is said to be the healer of all kinds of wounds, but son being a fool is a life-long tormenting and burning worry. If sons were not born here also, I would have been sad, would have been trying to get a son, would have been beating my chest when my son died and might have become neurotic, but this situation would have been only for some time, after that or So I would have forgotten the sorrow or the sorrow would have forgotten me, but here the sorrow is not only irritating me standing in front, but the amount of sorrow is increasing day by day. ,